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At what stage of CKD is dialysis started?

Dialysis is often started in patients who have reached the advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is a gradual decline in the functioning of the kidneys, and it is classified into stages 1-5. Stage 5, also known as End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is the most severe stage of CKD, where the kidneys have lost about 85-90% of their functioning capacity.

When a patient’s kidneys have been damaged to the extent that they can no longer perform their crucial function of filtering waste and excess fluids, dialysis may be recommended as a necessary intervention to manage the condition. However, the decision to start dialysis in patients with advanced stage CKD is usually individualized and based on several factors, including patient’s symptoms, laboratory values, age, comorbidities, social support, and desire for treatment.

Signs and symptoms that may prompt the need for dialysis include nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, fluid overload, and difficulty in managing high blood pressure. Laboratory values such as increasing creatinine levels, a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and electrolyte imbalances, may also indicate that dialysis is necessary to maintain the patient’s health.

The initiation of dialysis is usually determined after careful evaluation by a nephrologist, who will weigh the benefits and risks of the procedure, as well as the patient’s overall health status. In some instances, dialysis may be delayed if a patient is asymptomatic and stable, while in other cases, it may be started immediately to prevent further complications or deterioration of the patient’s health.

Therefore, the stage at which dialysis is started may vary depending on the individual patient’s needs and circumstances.

What stage of kidney failure requires dialysis?

Kidney failure is caused due to many reasons such as chronic high blood pressure, diabetes, urinary tract infections, and other kidney diseases. The kidneys are responsible for filtering and removing waste from the blood. Kidney failure occurs when they stop functioning to their full capacity, and waste products and fluids accumulate in the body.

At this stage, the doctors may recommend dialysis to remove waste products and fluids from the body.

Dialysis is a medical procedure that filters the blood and helps in removing waste, excess salt, and water from the body. There are two types of dialysis procedures: Hemodialysis & Peritoneal dialysis.

Hemodialysis is a procedure where the blood is extracted from the patient’s body, and it is passed through a medical filter outside the body. Once the blood is filtered, it is pumped back into the body. Peritoneal dialysis is a procedure where a dialyzing solution is fed through a catheter inside the patient’s abdomen.

This solution helps in removing waste products from the blood, and it is drained out of the body after a few hours.

Now to answer the question, which stage of kidney failure requires dialysis, doctors decide based on the patient’s clinical and medical conditions. The most common way doctors diagnose kidney failure is by measuring the Glomerular Filtration Rate(GFR), a test that measures the level of Creatinine in the blood.

If the creatinine level is higher than the standard levels, then that indicates the kidneys are not functioning to their full capacity.

Based on the GFR levels, kidney failure is classified into five stages:

1. Stage 1: Kidney disease with normal or increased GFR (>90 mL/min)

2. Stage 2: Kidney disease with mildly decreased GFR (60–89 mL/min)

3. Stage 3: Kidney disease with moderately decreased GFR (30–59 mL/min)

4. Stage 4: Kidney disease with severely decreased GFR (15–29 mL/min)

5. Stage 5: Kidney failure (GFR<15 mL/min)

Generally, dialysis is recommended at stage 5 or kidney failure stage. When the patient reaches stage 5, the kidneys are working below 15% of their capacity, and their body is unable to remove waste products and fluids. At this point, dialysis is needed to help filter the patient’s blood and remove waste, excess salt and water from the body.

However, the decision of when to start dialysis also depends on other factors such as the patient’s age, co-existing medical conditions, and patient’s preference. dialysis is recommended when the patient is in the fifth stage of kidney failure, which is also known as end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Does Stage 4 kidney disease need dialysis?

Stage 4 kidney disease is a serious medical condition where the kidneys are severely impaired, and their functions are largely compromised. During this stage, the kidneys often fail to eliminate waste products, extra fluids, and excess minerals from the body. This condition can lead to a range of complications such as high blood pressure, anemia, bone disease, and even heart disease.

Whether or not stage 4 kidney disease requires dialysis depends on a number of factors such as the severity of the symptoms, the overall health condition of the patient, and the sensitivity of the kidneys to treatment. While some patients with stage 4 kidney disease may manage their symptoms with medication and lifestyle changes, others may require dialysis to ensure that their kidneys are functioning properly.

Dialysis is a procedure that involves removing waste and excess fluids from the body when the kidneys are no longer able to perform this function. The procedure can be done in different ways, including peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and continuous renal replacement therapy. The choice of the dialysis method depends on the patient’s condition, age, general health, and their preference.

Generally, doctors recommend dialysis when the kidney function falls below 15%, which is usually when the patient reaches stage 5 kidney disease. However, in some cases, patients with stage 4 kidney disease may require dialysis earlier than expected due to the severity of their symptoms or the presence of other underlying medical conditions.

Whether or not stage 4 kidney disease requires dialysis varies from patient to patient, and the decision to undergo dialysis is often made in consultation with a healthcare professional. Early intervention and close monitoring of the condition can help slow down the progression of kidney disease and improve the quality of life for patients.

What are 5 indications for needing dialysis?

Dialysis is a medical treatment that involves the process of filtering excess waste and fluids from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform their function. This treatment is usually recommended for individuals who have kidney damage or failure, and the decision to undergo dialysis is based on various factors.

Here are five indications for needing dialysis:

1. Reduced kidney function: The kidneys are responsible for filtering waste and fluids from the blood. When the kidneys are no longer able to perform their function, a buildup of waste products and fluids can occur. A decrease in kidney function is usually determined by an evaluation of creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) levels.

If these levels are low, it may indicate the need for dialysis.

2. High levels of waste products in the blood: As mentioned previously, the kidneys filter waste products from the blood. When the kidneys are no longer able to do this effectively, the levels of waste products such as urea, creatinine, and potassium can increase in the blood. Elevated levels of these waste products can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and fatigue.

In such cases, dialysis may be required to remove the excess waste from the blood.

3. Fluid buildup: The kidneys are also responsible for regulating the amount of fluid in the body. When the kidneys are not functioning correctly, fluid can accumulate in the body, leading to swelling in various parts, such as the legs and ankles, or even the lungs. Dialysis can help remove excess fluid from the body and prevent complications.

4. High blood pressure that is difficult to control: Chronic kidney disease is one of the leading causes of high blood pressure. High blood pressure can cause damage to blood vessels and organs in the body, including the kidneys. In some cases, dialysis may be needed to lower blood pressure levels and reduce the risk of complications.

5. End-stage renal disease: This is a term used to describe advanced kidney disease where the kidneys have lost most of their function. Individuals with end-stage renal disease require dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain normal kidney function and overall health.

Dialysis is a life-saving procedure for individuals with kidney failure or severe kidney disease. The need for dialysis is determined based on various factors, including kidney function, levels of waste products in the blood, fluid buildup, high blood pressure, and end-stage renal disease. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you are experiencing symptoms of kidney disease or require advice on treatment options.

Do you need dialysis at stage 5?

Stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known as End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) or kidney failure. At this stage, the kidneys have lost almost all their functioning, and the person’s body is unable to excrete waste and excess fluids properly. Dialysis, in most cases, is the only treatment option available for people with ESRD.

Dialysis is a medical procedure that filters waste and excess fluids from the blood artificially. There are two main types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis is the most common type of dialysis that involves the use of a machine called a hemodialyzer to filter the blood outside the body and return the filtered blood back to the body.

Peritoneal dialysis, on the other hand, uses the lining of the patient’s abdomen to filter the blood.

Dialysis may not be necessary for all patients with ESRD, as some people may be suitable candidates for kidney transplantation. If the patient has a suitable donor and is healthy enough to undergo a transplant, it can be a more effective and preferred option compared to dialysis.

However, not all patients are suitable candidates for kidney transplantation, and some may need to undergo dialysis to manage their ESRD. Dialysis can help these patients maintain their health and prolong their lives, as it functions as a replacement for the lost kidney functions.

Therefore, whether or not a patient needs dialysis at stage 5 of CKD depends on different factors, such as individual health status, medical history, and the availability of transplantation options. It is best to consult a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for each individual.

How long can you stay in stage 3 kidney disease life expectancy?

Stage 3 kidney disease is a stage where the kidneys are moderately damaged, and it is characterized by a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30-59 ml/min. Patients diagnosed with stage 3 kidney disease should know that this is not a death sentence, and with proper care and management, they can still lead a relatively normal life.

The life expectancy of patients with stage 3 kidney disease varies depending on several factors, including age, overall health, presence of other medical conditions, and compliance with treatment plans. According to research, the average life expectancy of patients with stage 3 kidney disease is about 11-12 years.

However, this statistic is a rough estimate, and individual cases may differ. It is important to note that some patients with stage 3 kidney disease may progress to more advanced stages of the disease, which can decrease their life expectancy.

To improve their life expectancy, patients with stage 3 kidney disease must take an active role in managing their condition. They should maintain a healthy lifestyle, exercise regularly, and follow a renal-friendly diet that is low in salt, fat, and protein. Patients may also need to take medications to control their blood pressure and blood sugar levels.

Additionally, patients with stage 3 kidney disease should have regular check-ups with their healthcare provider to monitor their kidney function and overall health. Early detection and treatment of any potential complications may help slow the progression of the disease and improve their life expectancy.

While the life expectancy of patients with stage 3 kidney disease may vary, it is important to focus on managing the condition to improve their quality of life and overall health. By following a healthy lifestyle, taking medications as prescribed, and regularly monitoring their condition with their healthcare provider, patients can lead a fulfilling life despite their diagnosis.

What is the life expectancy of someone with stage 3 CKD?

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a medical condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time. One of the ways to determine the severity of CKD is through staging, based on the level of impairment of the kidney’s glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Stage 3 CKD is one of the five stages of CKD, where the GFR is between 30-59 mL/min/1.73m².

It is difficult to determine the life expectancy of someone with stage 3 CKD accurately. The prognosis of CKD mainly depends on various factors such as age, gender, race, comorbidities, and the underlying cause of CKD. Generally, those with stage 3 CKD can live for many years, especially if the underlying condition causing the kidney disease is well-controlled, and treatment is promptly received.

However, complications arising from CKD can impact an individual’s life expectancy.

Several complications occur in a person with stage 3 CKD, such as anemia, high blood pressure, mineral and bone disorders, and cardiovascular disease. They can lead to additional health problems, ultimately, affecting the quality and length of life.

In addition, stage 3 CKD is also a risk factor for progressive kidney failure. Some individuals with stage 3 may eventually reach stage 4 or 5, where the GFR falls below 30 mL/min/1.73m², and the kidney cannot maintain its vital functions adequately. In such cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be required, which also affects life expectancy.

It is essential to have regular check-ups with a healthcare provider, follow a healthy lifestyle, and comply with the treatment regimen provided to manage any underlying condition that requires treatment. This can help stabilize and even improve the kidney function, slow down the progression of CKD, and ultimately improve overall life expectancy.

What is the thing to do for stage 3 kidney disease?

Stage 3 kidney disease is a critical stage where the kidneys have been moderately damaged, with a reduction in their function to filter waste and excess water from the blood. At this stage, early detection and prompt intervention are essential. The primary goal of treatment is to slow down or prevent further damage and maintain the kidney function as much as possible.

The first thing to do when diagnosed with stage 3 kidney disease is to consult with a nephrologist, a specialist in kidney disease. The nephrologist will evaluate the patient’s overall health, kidney function, and the extent of damage caused by the condition. Based on this assessment, the physician will develop a treatment plan to manage the disease and protect the kidney function.

One of the crucial things to do for stage 3 kidney disease is to manage underlying medical conditions. Many diseases like hypertension and diabetes can worsen kidney disease. The doctor may prescribe medications to lower blood pressure and glucose levels to prevent further damage to the kidneys. The physician may also recommend a low sodium and a low-protein diet to decrease the workload on the kidneys and control blood pressure.

Another important aspect of treatment for stage 3 kidney disease is lifestyle modifications. Patients with kidney disease should quit smoking, maintain a healthy weight, exercise regularly, and avoid alcohol consumption. All these factors can contribute significantly to the progression of kidney disease and affect overall health.

In some cases, the nephrologist may prescribe medications to treat the underlying cause of the kidney disease, such as antibiotics for infections or steroids for immune problems. Supplements like vitamin D and iron may also be recommended to address any nutrient deficiencies caused by the kidney disease.

Finally, regular monitoring and follow-up with the nephrologist are critical for the effective management of stage 3 kidney disease. Blood tests, urine tests, and other diagnostic procedures performed at regular intervals will help the physician monitor the kidney function and adjust the treatment plan accordingly.

Stage 3 kidney disease requires an individualized treatment plan that addresses the underlying causes, manages medical conditions, and includes lifestyle modifications. The key to managing the condition successfully is early detection, close monitoring, and prompt intervention. With appropriate treatment and care, people with stage 3 kidney disease can live a healthy life and prevent further damage to their kidneys.

Can stage 3 kidney disease get better?

Stage 3 kidney disease is a condition characterized by moderately impaired kidney function where the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ranges from 30 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m². In stage 3 kidney disease, the kidneys are damaged, causing a decline in their ability to filter waste products and fluids from the body.

While there is no cure for stage 3 kidney disease, it is possible to slow down or even prevent further damage to the kidneys with proper management.

The chances of stage 3 kidney disease getting better depend on several factors, including the underlying cause of the kidney problem and the individual’s overall health. Patients with stage 3 kidney disease should work with their doctors to develop a treatment plan that suits their specific needs.

Treatment for stage 3 kidney disease involves the following steps:

1. Managing underlying conditions: Often, stage 3 kidney disease is caused by underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, or autoimmune disorders. By treating these conditions, further damage to the kidneys can be prevented.

2. Making lifestyle changes: Quitting smoking, regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, and following a low-salt, low-fat diet can all help to slow down the progression of kidney disease.

3. Medications: Medications like ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) can help to lower blood pressure and reduce proteinuria, a sign of kidney damage. Other medication may also be prescribed to control various aspects of kidney disease.

4. Dialysis or transplant: In severe cases where the kidneys are no longer able to function properly, dialysis or transplantation may be necessary.

While it is not always possible to reverse the damage that has already occurred with stage 3 kidney disease, it is certainly possible to slow down its progression and even prevent further damage. Following a healthy lifestyle, working closely with a professional healthcare provider, and taking necessary medication can help improve the chances of a better outcome in stage 3 kidney disease.

How long can you live with Stage 4 renal disease?

Stage 4 renal disease, also known as End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), is characterized by a severe decrease in kidney function with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15-29 ml/min/1.73 m². At this stage, patients typically experience significant symptoms, such as fatigue, fluid buildup, high blood pressure, and anemia.

The life expectancy for individuals with Stage 4 renal disease varies depending on various factors such as age, additional health conditions, and access to treatment options. In general, without treatment, the average life expectancy at this stage of the disease is less than five years. However, with the appropriate treatment and management, many people can live much longer than that.

One of the critical treatments for Stage 4 renal disease is dialysis, which can help remove waste products and excess fluids from the body. Dialysis may be performed at a hospital, dialysis center or home, allowing for increased flexibility and quality of life for patients, even though it is a time-consuming and uncomfortable process.

If a patient is an eligible candidate, kidney transplant is also a viable option that could prolong their life significantly.

Moreover, one must consider disease management through lifestyle changes, including a healthy diet, regular exercise, and medication management, which can help stabilize kidney function, reduce complications, and potentially extend life expectancy.

While the prognosis for Stage 4 renal disease typically might seem grim, with appropriate treatment and management, individuals with the disease can still live long and happy lives, although the treatment and management of this condition require strict routine regulations and strict medical attention.

How much water should I drink with CKD stage 4?

Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) require special attention to their water intake. This is because their kidneys are not functioning properly, which can lead to the inability to properly filter fluids and remove waste from their body. In the case of those with CKD stage 4, their kidney function is significantly reduced, meaning they often must monitor and control their water intake in order to maintain good health.

In general, those with CKD stage 4 are typically advised to drink enough water to avoid dehydration, but not so much that it puts additional strain on their kidneys. This can be a very delicate balance, as too much or too little hydration can both be harmful.

A good starting point for estimating appropriate water intake with CKD stage 4 is to follow the standard recommendation of drinking at least eight glasses (64 ounces) of water per day. However, this may vary depending on individual circumstances, such as other health conditions, body weight, and lifestyle factors.

Thus, it’s important for individuals to work closely with their doctors to determine the best water intake levels for their personal needs.

It’s also important to note that some people with CKD who are on dialysis may need to drink less water than those not undergoing treatment. This is because the dialysis process removes extra fluid from the body during treatment sessions, so consuming too much water could cause dangerous fluid buildup before the next session.

In addition to monitoring overall water intake, it’s also important for those with CKD stage 4 to keep an eye on other fluids they consume. This includes not only water, but also beverages like coffee, tea, soda, juice, and alcohol. Some of these fluids can be dehydrating, so it’s important to consume them in moderation or avoid them altogether.

The amount of water that someone with CKD stage 4 should drink can vary depending on their individual circumstances. Working closely with a healthcare provider to monitor fluid intake and kidney function is an essential part of keeping kidneys healthy and managing CKD stage 4 long term.

What is the difference between stage 4 and stage 5 kidney failure?

Stage 4 and Stage 5 Kidney Failure are both related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is a progressive and irreversible deterioration in kidney function caused by various conditions that affect the kidneys. The difference between stage 4 and stage 5 kidney failure lies in the level of kidney function and the severity of symptoms.

Stage 4 kidney failure is characterized by a severe decrease in kidney function, which is marked by a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 15-29 ml/min. This means that the kidneys are only functioning at 15-29% of their normal capacity. At this stage, individuals may experience symptoms such as fatigue, anemia, high blood pressure, loss of appetite, bone pain, and fluid retention.

These symptoms may be mild or severe, depending on the individual and the underlying cause of the CKD.

Stage 5 kidney failure, on the other hand, is also known as end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is the most severe form of CKD and is characterized by a GFR of less than 15ml/min. At this stage, kidneys have lost almost all their function, and an individual is dependent on dialysis or kidney transplantation to survive.

Symptoms at this stage include those seen in stage 4 kidney failure, along with nausea, vomiting, headache, difficulty breathing, and heart palpitations. These symptoms may be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.

Moreover, treatment options for stage 4 and stage 5 kidney failure also differ. In stage 4, the focus is primarily on managing symptoms and slowing down the progression of CKD. Depending on the underlying cause, treatment may include medication, lifestyle changes, and, in some cases, surgery. In contrast, in stage 5, the focus is on maintaining kidney function and supporting the body’s other systems.

Dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only treatment options that can help an individual with ESRD regain quality of life and survive.

While both stages 4 and 5 of kidney failure are severe, stage 5 is the most critical and often requires immediate medical management. Early identification and treatment of CKD can help prevent its progression and improve outcomes for individuals with this disease. Therefore, it is essential to be proactive about kidney health and get regular screenings and checkups from a healthcare professional.

What foods can repair kidneys?

Maintaining a healthy diet is critical for optimal kidney function. Certain foods can promote the repair and nourishment of the delicate kidney tissues, while others may cause damage to the kidneys. Consuming a balanced diet rich in nutrients such as antioxidants, essential fatty acids, and low in sodium and phosphorous can be beneficial for the kidneys.

One of the best foods for kidney repair is fresh fruits and vegetables. They are rich in essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals that promote the detoxification and nourishment of the kidneys. Berries, for instance, are loaded with antioxidants that prevent free radical damage and inflammation that can cause kidney damage.

Leafy green veggies also have high amounts of magnesium, which can help to flush out excess calcium and protect the kidneys from damage.

Another food that can repair the kidneys is a serving of fatty fish such as salmon or tuna. These fishes have omega 3 fatty acids that reduce inflammation and improve blood flow to the kidneys. A study from the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology found that diets rich in fish oil can improve kidney function and reduce proteinuria.

Nuts and seeds such as chia seeds, flax seeds, and walnuts are also rich in omega 3 fatty acids.

Finally, plant-based proteins like legumes, beans, and lentils are excellent sources of protein and fiber that the kidneys can easily digest without causing excessive strain. With less phosphorous than meats and dairy, these plant sources provide a sustainable source of energy for the body while also promoting optimal kidney function.

Some foods that can repair the kidneys include fresh fruits and vegetables, fatty fish like salmon or tuna, nuts and seeds, and legumes or beans. It’s important to remember that alongside a healthy diet, individuals with chronic kidney diseases should consult with their doctors to make sure they include other healing measures in their treatment plan, such as medication, exercise, and lifestyle changes.

When is dialysis not recommended?

Dialysis is not recommended in certain circumstances. Dialysis is primarily used as a treatment for kidney failure when the kidneys are unable to properly eliminate waste products from the body. However, there are certain situations when dialysis may not be considered as the best course of action.

Dialysis is not recommended for individuals who have mild kidney disease, as they are usually able to maintain adequate kidney function with proper medical management and lifestyle modifications. Patients with chronic kidney disease, for example, may still have a significant amount of kidney function remaining and may not require immediate dialysis.

Instead, such patients are usually managed with medications, dietary modifications, and regular check-ups with a nephrologist.

Dialysis is also not recommended for patients with terminal illnesses, such as advanced or terminal cancer. In these situations, dialysis may not provide significant benefits to the patient and may instead lead to further complications and discomfort.

In addition, dialysis may be contraindicated in patients with certain medical conditions or health concerns. For instance, patients with severe or uncontrolled heart disease, severe infection, bleeding disorders, or poorly controlled diabetes may be at increased risk for complications during dialysis and may need to avoid the procedure altogether.

Furthermore, dialysis may not be suitable for patients who are unable to tolerate the treatment or who have advanced dementia and are unable to provide informed consent. In such cases, other palliative care measures may be recommended to improve overall patient comfort and quality of life.

In general, it is essential to discuss the potential benefits and risks of dialysis with a qualified health care provider to determine the best course of treatment for individual patients. Factors such as the patient’s overall health status, age, medical history, and preferences should be taken into account when deciding whether to proceed with dialysis or not.

What is the difference between ESRD and CKD?

ESRD and CKD are both medical conditions that are related to the functioning of the kidneys. ESRD stands for End-Stage Renal Disease, while CKD refers to Chronic Kidney Disease. The key difference between the two is that ESRD is considered to be the final stage of CKD.

CKD is a serious condition that develops over a period of time and can affect people of all ages. It is characterized by a gradual decline in the ability of the kidneys to filter waste products and fluids from the body. This can lead to a buildup of waste products, electrolyte imbalances, and fluid retention, among other symptoms.

CKD is often associated with other conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes, and it can progress gradually over a number of years.

ESRD, on the other hand, is the point at which the kidneys have reached complete failure and are no longer able to function effectively. People with ESRD require renal replacement therapy to support their kidney function, such as dialysis or a kidney transplant. ESRD is usually diagnosed when kidney function is below 10 to 15 percent of its normal capacity.

At this point, the patient may experience a range of symptoms, including fatigue, swelling, difficulty breathing, and nausea.

It is important to note that not all people with CKD will develop ESRD, and early diagnosis and intervention can help to slow the progression of the disease. Treatment for CKD often involves lifestyle modifications, medication, and careful management of associated conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes.

People with CKD should also have regular check-ups with their doctor to monitor their kidney function and make adjustments to their treatment as necessary.

While ESRD and CKD are related to the function of the kidneys, ESRD is considered the final stage of CKD. CKD is a chronic condition that develops gradually over time, while ESRD signals a complete failure of kidney function. Early diagnosis and management of CKD can help to prevent or delay its progression to ESRD, and people with CKD should have regular check-ups with their healthcare provider to monitor their kidney function and manage any associated conditions.


  1. What Is Dialysis and When Do I Start? – DaVita
  2. Chronic kidney disease: When is the best time to start dialysis?
  3. Kidney Failure: When Should I Start Dialysis?
  4. Stages of kidney disease – American Kidney Fund
  5. Stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) – American Kidney Fund