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Which of the following describe the formation of an island arc?

An island arc is a type of tectonic plate boundary characterized by a curved chain of several islands that are created by volcanism and the tectonic collisions of oceanic plates. The formation of an island arc begins when an oceanic plate subducts, or dives under, another oceanic plate.

As the subducting slab descends beneath the overriding plate, it exerts a horizontal force that drives the overriding plate away from the subduction zone. This spreading movement creates a rift in the overriding plate, which is filled by magma rising from the asthenosphere.

The molten rock then cools and hardens, forming new oceanic crust along the rift.

The next step in the formation of an island arc is the continued subduction of the oceanic plates. As the subducted oceanic plate descends, it bends, creating a chain of mountains along the surface of the overriding plate.

This arc of mountains is the result of tensional forces that the subduction zone has placed upon the overriding plate. Many of these mountains are volcanoes that are formed by the melting of the subducted plate.

As the volcanoes build and lava flows out of them, they are eventually joined together by other volcanic rocks, forming a chain of islands that is known as an island arc. The islands in an island arc form a curved pattern, due to the curvature of the subducting slab, which is caused by the fact that the Earth’s surface is curved.

The island arcs are usually composed of volcanic islands, with numerous other volcanoes, and sometimes seamounts, scattered between them. The size, shape, and number of islands that make up an island arc depend on the magnitude and speed of the tectonic forces at work in the region, as well as the type of crust involved in the subduction process.

What leads to the creation of island arcs quizlet?

Island arcs are created through a process called subduction. Subduction is the process by which one lithospheric plate moves underneath an adjacent plate and sinks into the mantle, resulting in the creation of an arc-shaped landform.

This process is driven by convection currents in the Earth’s mantle and is also dependant on the density differences between the plates. As the denser plate moves underneath the adjacent plate, it is pushed down and bends, creating the arc shape.

This arc is then filled with sediment and volcanic material, leading to the formation of islands, peninsulas, and other curious landforms.

Which of the following is an example of an island arc along a trench?

An example of an island arc along a trench is the Izu-Ogasawara Trench system which is in the Pacific Ocean near Japan. This trench system runs for approximately 700km and has a depth of about 8,000 meters, making it one of the deepest ocean trenches in the world.

It consists of a series of submerged volcanic islands and seamounts known collectively as the Izu-Ogasawara Arc which is one of the most active places for seismicity (earthquake activity) on earth. It marks the subduction point along the eastern margin of the Eurasian Plate and is formed by the collision of the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Plate.

The arc was largely formed from oceanic crust being forced down and melted, creating new volcanic material. The arc is composed of many islands including Sorocco and Ani-Jim, which are the northernmost and southernmost points of the arc, respectively.

What happens to the crust behind a migrating island arc as it moves along with a subducting slab?

As a migrating island arc moves along with a subducting slab, the area behind the arc is affected by various geological processes, such as subduction erosion, magma accretion, and mantle wedge addition.

Subduction erosion involves material being scraped off the slab as it descends into the mantle, resulting in a decrease in elevation. Magma accretion is the process by which magma is injected into the overriding plate during the subduction process, forming a thickened slab of material that forms a high topographic bulge behind the arc.

The mantle wedge addition involves mantle material entrained in the subducting slab that is thicken the crust behind the arc. All of these processes create a complex tectonic lining that reworks the crust behind the arc, creating features such as fold and thrust belts, terrane accretion, scraped and delaminated areas, and increased magmatic activity.

The combination of these processes can result in extensive metamorphic and igneous activity, ultimately forming a new crust in the area behind the arc.

How did the upper portion of Monterey Canyon form quizlet?

The upper portion of Monterey Canyon was formed over the course of several million years due to a variety of factors. Submarine landslides are believed to be the main mechanism responsible for its formation, as well as the erosion of sediment by currents and waves.

Over time, this erosion process deepened the canyon and created its multi-level structure. Additionally, fluctuating sea levels played a role in the canyon’s formation by creating zones of erosion and deposition along the continental slope.

Finally, the long-term effects of Earth’s tectonic activity were critical for the formation of the deep canyon, as plates shifting over the millennia slowly thrust pieces of the continental shelf up and away from the seafloor.

This process helped further create and shape the canyon’s walls, as well as its multi-level structure. All of these processes combined over millions of years to create the stunning Monterey Canyon.

What type of plate movement causes island arcs?

Island arcs are typically formed as a result of convergent plate boundaries, where two tectonic plates move towards each other and collide. One plate will ride up and over the other, oceanic lithosphere is typically subducted beneath the overriding plate and deformed in the process.

The friction along these plate boundaries results in high temperatures and pressures which can generate volcanoes and push up the surface of the crust of the overriding plate to create an arc of islands.

The most prominent example of this type of plate movement is the Pacific Ring of Fire where tectonic activity causes frequent earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis.

What is the source of energy for giant worm tubes and clams that live at hydrothermal vents?

The source of energy for giant worm tubes and clams that live at hydrothermal vents comes from chemosynthesis. The hot, sulfurous fluids produced by hydrothermal vents are rich in minerals and dissolved nutrients, making them a perfect environment for chemosynthetic organisms.

These organisms use minerals and hydrogen sulfide present in the hydrothermal vent fluids as an energy source to produce organic matter, which they consume as food. The worms and clams that live at hydrothermal vents have evolved specialized organs to take advantage of this energy source.

The “gills” of tube worms, for example, contain bacteria that can turn hydrogen sulfide into a form of energy that the worms can use. The clams living at hydrothermal vents have evolved special organelles known as bacteriocytes in their gills that house bacteria.

These bacteria are then able to convert the hydrogen sulfide into energy-rich molecules, allowing the clams to feed on them. In this way, giant worm tubes and clams are able to receive the energy they need to survive from hydrothermal vents.

Where do hydrothermal vents get their energy?

Hydrothermal vents get their energy from the Earth itself. This energy is produced by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as uranium and thorium, within the Earth’s crust. As these elements decay, heat is released which is then carried via convection currents through the Earth’s mantle and eventually to the ocean floor.

Where the molten rock comes into contact with the cooler ocean water, incredibly high pressure and temperature can be created, which provides the necessary conditions for hydrothermal vents to form. These vents release hot, mineral-rich water that has been superheated deep within the Earth.

This water can reach temperatures of up to 400°C, creating an unusual and unique environment that allows for an incredible range of life forms to exist and thrive in the absence of sunlight.

What energy source does tube worms primarily get their energy from along the mid ocean ridge systems of the world?

Tube worms living along the mid ocean ridge systems of the world primarily get their energy from chemosynthesis. This process occurs when bacteria living within the tube worms convert chemicals from the hydrothermal vents into organic matter or energy.

The bacteria break down hydrogen sulfide and other hydrothermal vent chemicals into organic energy, which can then be consumed by the tube worms. This process is key to sustaining life and biodiversity in the extreme conditions of the deep sea, where there is very little light and other sources of energy such as photosynthesis.

Additionally, the food webs based on chemosynthetic organisms like the tube worms are integral to sustaining life far away from the processes and systems found in shallow, coastal environments.

What is the source of energy for the life in deep ocean?

The primary source of energy for life in the deep ocean is the sun. This is because the sun provides energy to the ocean in the form of photosynthetically produced organic matter. The organic matter then sinks to the deeper levels of the ocean and is eaten by zooplankton, filter feeders, and other deep sea organisms.

This energy is then passed up the food chain, providing the usable energy for other ocean creatures such as whales or squids. The sun is also the main source of energy driving oceanic currents, resulting in the transfer of heat and nutrients to the deeper levels.

Additionally, geothermal vents in the ocean provide a secondary energy source to these deeper areas. The heat from the vents provides a habitat for unique communities of organisms that survive on the energy from the vents.

The molecules released from the vents are used by the microbes in a process called chemosynthesis. The resulting molecules are a source of energy for animals living in the deep ocean depths.

What type of energy can be used from a hydrothermal vent?

Hydrothermal vents are capable of producing a wide range of forms of energy, such as thermal energy, chemical energy, and kinetic energy. Thermal energy can be used to generate electricity. This is done through the use of geothermal power plants that take advantage of the heat generated by the superheated water found at hydrothermal vents.

This energy can then be converted into electricity that can be utilized for various needs.

Chemical energy is another form of energy that can be used from hydrothermal vents. This occurs through the process of hydrothermal oxidation and reduction, where chemical reactions occur between the hot water and minerals in the vent.

This energy can then be used for a variety of processes, such as oil production and resource extraction.

Finally, kinetic energy can also be harvested from the powerful jets and eruptions that occur at hydrothermal vents. This energy can be used to drive turbines and generate electricity. Additionally, kinetic energy can also be used to power ships and other forms of transportation.

How do we get energy from hydrothermal?

We get energy from hydrothermal (sometimes called geothermal) sources by utilizing the Earth’s natural heat to generate electricity. By drilling thousands of feet into the Earth’s crust, engineers can extract hot, pressurized water or steam that has risen up due to Earth’s natural geothermal heat.

This water or steam is then used to rotate a turbine, which in turn, creates electricity.

When hydrothermal energy is realized, it is considered a sustainable, environmentally friendly fuel source. Not only is it renewable, but it does not produce any hazardous emissions, such as air pollutants, into the atmosphere like traditional forms of energy generation.

In addition to electricity generation, the hot water or steam that is brought to the surface through geothermal energy production can also be utilized to provide hot water and heating. This, in turn, can be used to create hot water farms, greenhouses, and even recreational areas such as hot spring spas.

How is energy produced at hydrothermal vents quizlet?

Hydrothermal vents are oceanic fissures located in shallow or deep waters where an energy source such as heat is released. When this energy source is combined with seawater, it creates various chemical reactions which produce energy in the form of chemical, thermal, and kinetic energy.

Chemical energy is created when the reaction between heated water, hydrogen sulfide, oxygen, sulfur and other chemicals creates energy in the form of inorganic compounds, such as sulfuric acid, organic compounds, like methanol, and other chemicals.

The energy from these reactions is usually used to create organic matter and to power a variety of organisms.

Thermal energy is created when the hot water seeps up through the seafloor and is stored in the animals and bacteria that rely on the vent for survival. This energy is used for respiration and other metabolic functions.

Kinetic energy is produced by the turbulence of the heated water as it ascends from the seafloor. This energy is harnessed through natural ocean currents and is used to power organisms living in the area.

Overall, the energy created at hydrothermal vents is an extremely important source of energy for both marine organisms and those living on land, as it not only provides a source of energy and nutrition to various organisms, but it is also an important source of raw materials for industry.

What is the source of heat at a hydrothermal vent?

The source of heat at a hydrothermal vent is the result of very hot water, magma, and/or volcanic activity. This hot water is created through the process of mantle convection which occurs deep in the Earth’s interior.

This process is driven by the slow downward motion of cold oceanic plates and the upward motion of hot mantle material that eventually reaches the Earth’s surface. The hot water molecules that form from this process rush upward through various cracks in the seafloor towards the surface, where they come out of the ocean floor at hydrothermal vents.

The temperature of the water at these vents can range between 80° to 375° Celsius or 176° to 707° Fahrenheit. The temperatures of the water are so hot because of the effects of the Earth’s heat, the scorching high pressures of the mantle, and the extreme depths of the ocean floor.

How do the tube worms at the hydrothermal vents survive?

Tube worms at the hydrothermal vents can survive thanks to the unique biology they possess. The worms have adapted to take advantage of the chemicals present at the vents and use symbiotic bacteria in their tissues to convert the hydrogen sulfide and other chemicals into usable sources of nutrition.

Specifically, their symbiotic bacteria create energy from chemosynthesis, which does not rely on sunlight or oxygen. The bacteria extract sulfur compounds and hydrogen from the water, which is then used to form simple organic molecules like glucose.

Additionally, these worms have adapted to the extreme temperatures and pressure as well as the limited food sources that are available around hydrothermal vents. The worms have an organ called the gills that are filled with coiled blood vessels that help the worms absorb oxygen from the water and respire in the extreme conditions.

Finally, the thick mucus produced by the worms provide protection from predators and the harsh conditions.