Submarines get fresh water from distilling salt water. Submarines are equipped with distilling apparatus that take in salt water from the ocean, boil it and turn it into fresh water. This process is known as the desalination of seawater and it is one of the most important things that keep submarines afloat for long periods of time.
The distillation process works by boiling the salt water, which causes the salt to separate from the water and turn into steam. The steam is then condensed, producing fresh water. This distillation process is highly efficient, producing up to three gallons of fresh water from a single gallon of salt water.
Additionally, this process can also be used to remove microorganisms, diseases and most types of contaminants from the seawater. The distillation process also works to reduce the salt content and make the water easier to drink and use on a submarine.
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Where do submarines get air to surface?
Submarines get air to surface mainly through their snorkels. The snorkel is a tube that rises up to the surface. It has an air inlet and an exhaust valve on the top of the submarine so that air can be exchanged between the submarine and the atmosphere.
This is important because a submarine needs to have fresh air to keep the crew and its systems functioning properly. The air-filled snorkel enables the crew of the submarine to breathe and to run the engine and the electrical system.
In addition, it also allows the crew to communicate with other submarines or vessels on the surface. The snorkel is a versatile tool that gives submarines the capability to remain submerged for extended periods of time and to remain undetected.
How do you ventilate a submarine?
Ventilation on a submarine is vitally important, as it ensures clean air throughout the entire vessel and keeps it free from harmful gasses. The main purpose of ventilation on a submarine is to remove stale air, reduce humidity, and introduce fresh air into both habitable and non-habitable spaces.
In most cases, the primary means of ventilation for a submarine is the mechanical ventilation system. This consists of a fan unit, ducts, and circular vents, which connect all of the compartments together.
Fresh air is pumped from the compression and purification unit into the crew compartment, and then distributed to the rest of the compartments and airlocks through a network of ducts. Additionally, ventilation can be achieved through natural means, such as natural draft inlets and outlets, which can be opened and closed as needed to control the flow of air.
The position of these inlets and outlets is critical to ensure that the submarine is properly ventilated and maintain appropriate air conditions for the crew.
Can you run out of oxygen in a submarine?
Yes, it is possible to run out of oxygen in a submarine. Submarines have limited oxygen supplies, so over time they can become depleted due to processes that require oxygen, such as burning fuel, as well as the respiration of the crew.
To prevent running out of oxygen, submarines are regularly supplied with fresh oxygen tanks as well as given regular maintenance to ensure that the systems used to maintain a safe level of oxygen are functioning properly.
Additionally, some submarines are designed with an oxygenating system that uses air from the outside to replenish the oxygen supply. Finally, submariners must watch their oxygen levels carefully and monitor them constantly, allowing them to quickly respond to any changes in the oxygen environment.
How do people not suffocate in submarines?
People don’t suffocate in submarines as they have a range of ventilation and life-support systems in place to make sure that the interior of the submarine is a safe and comfortable environment for its crew.
Submarines typically have systems in place to both generate and store the air necessary to sustain their crew. These air systems are designed to continuously cycle air through the submarine to keep it fresh and breathable.
Many submarines have built-in oxygen banks and oxygen vents in order to make sure there is a continuous supply of air as long as the submarine is submerged. Additionally, submarines also feature carbon dioxide scrubbers to ensure the carbon dioxide levels remain low and that the air remains breathable.
With these systems in mind, the crew of submarines is able to operate underwater for extended periods of time without fear of suffocating or breathing in noxious gases.
How do submarines not run out of oxygen?
Submarines don’t run out of oxygen because of their oxygen management and filtration systems. Submarines use a variety of methods to ensure their air remains fresh and oxygen-rich. Oxygen is a naturally occurring component of the air that they use to breathe, but the air has to be maintained carefully.
The oxygen management system is broken down into two key areas. One involves the air compressors which filter and enrich air from the outside, and the other is the air conditioning and filtration system.
The air compressors take in external air, including oxygen and other vital components, and compress it to the appropriate pressure levels for the compartment. The air is then filtered for exhaust particles, and enriched with oxygen.
The air conditioning and filtration system maintains the air in the submarine. This system consists of numerous different types of filters, ventilation and air recycling systems. These systems are designed to capture and remove any air contaminants and stale air, while replenishing it with new, oxygen-rich air.
The submarine can also use oxygen tanks as a backup in case of emergencies.
Overall, it’s a combination of careful management and sophisticated technology that allows submarines to stay underwater for extended periods of time without running out of oxygen.
What happens if a submarine runs out of air?
If a submarine runs out of air, the consequences could be dire. With no source of fresh air, the occupants would quickly succumb to hypoxia, which is a lack of oxygen that can lead to nausea, disorientation, impaired coordination and judgment, unconsciousness, and eventually death.
Additionally, the pressure of the deep ocean could crush the submarine, causing catastrophic damage and likely death for anyone still inside the vessel. In some cases, submarines breaking the surface may be able to call for help; however, this is unlikely if the submarine is too deep to break the surface or the occupants have passed out from hypoxia.
Without an effective communication system for a Mayday call, a submarine running out of air may not be found in time to render rescue. Thus, it is highly important for submarine crews to remain vigilant about their air supply and quickly take action to avoid running out of air.
What do Navy ships do with human waste?
Navy ships dispose of human waste in a variety of ways, depending on the size and capacity of the vessel and the circumstances. On smaller vessels, human waste is usually stored on board in holding tanks and then discharged at designated discharge sites.
Wastewater is discharged through overboard discharge piping at designated wastewater discharge sites. On larger vessels, wastewater is treated on board through a sewage treatment plant that removes solids and disinfects the liquids before they are discharged.
The solids that are removed from the wastewater are incinerated or land-filled, and the liquid is further treated before being discharged. In addition to human waste, ships must also dispose of other kinds of waste such as graywater, wash-down water, oily bilge water, and de-ionized water.
In some cases, ships may discharge these at designated sites or pump them to a shore facility for further treatment.
Where does sewage go in a submarine?
Sewage from a submarine is generally treated using sanitary tanks of some sort, depending on the type of submarine and the specific design of its sewage system. In many cases, the tanks are built into the submarine and contain microbes that process the sewage and convert it into a harmless solid material.
In more modern submarines, often called “wet submarines”, the sewage is contained in tanks and then pumped out at greater depths, where it can be discharged into the ocean. This helps to keep the interior of the submarine free of odor and minimizes the chances of contaminants entering the ocean environment.
In some cases, the sewage is treated before it is discharged, either by on-board treatment systems or by a specialized treatment facility on land.
How long can you shower in a submarine?
The amount of time you can spend showering on a submarine will largely depend on the type of submarine, as well as its current mission. Generally, on a military submarine, showers are a very precious commodity and are typically limited to quick 5-minute showers.
Quick showers minimize the amount of time spent in high humidity and the use of fresh water, which must be carefully monitored on board the submarine.
Water is a precious resource on board a submarine, so you can expect there to be some guards and limits in place to ensure fresh water usage is kept to a minimum. If you are on a mission, your water use may be more closely monitored as any additional water use would require the submarine to take on more fuel and ultimately affect safety.
If you are on a recreational submarine, you may be able to take slightly longer showers. However, it is still highly recommended to take shorter showers to conserve water, as well as reduce the humidity levels in the living quarters.
Does the Navy allow females on submarines?
Yes, the Navy allows females to serve on submarines. The U.S. Navy fully integrated women into the submarine force in 2011 and more than 800 female officers and enlisted personnel now serve, primarily on fast attack submarines.
Initially only females in specific Navy jobs were eligible to apply to serve on submarines, however all ratings are now eligible to serve in submarines due to changes in the Navy’s policy. While serving on submarines, female personnel undertake the same range of duties as their male counterparts.
The Navy has implemented a number of changes and accommodations to better integrate women in the submarine force. These changes include larger berthing and access to dedicated female bathrooms and showers, as well as other accessibility and safety measures.
The Navy is firmly committed to promoting a professional and respectful working environment for all regardless of gender, race, or ethnicity.
Do they dump nuclear waste in the ocean?
No, it is not legal to dump nuclear waste in the ocean. In 1983, the United States, in cooperation with other nations, adopted the London Convention, which bans the dumping of nuclear-related waste material into the ocean.
In addition, the 1996 Protocol to the Convention imposes special requirements for dumping activities which contain radioactive waste or other materials that may have an adverse effect on the marine environment.
The United States and many other countries have also made significant efforts to reduce and eliminate the usage of nuclear energy and its byproducts. For example, in the United States, nuclear power plants have greatly reduced their volume of radioactive waste, and in order to address the remaining waste they are now required to safely store it in dry cask storage facilities.
Also, the United States has adopted a long-term strategy to safely manage and dispose of the country’s nuclear waste, including the development and implementation of a permanent geological repository or deep geological disposal.
How much fresh water is in a submarine?
The amount of fresh water available in a submarine can vary greatly depending on the submarine’s size, purpose, and the technology available. However, it is common for a submarine to contain a few days worth of drinking/cooking water (50-200 gallons) as well as a reserve water supply (up to 1000 gallons) for longer voyages.
The primary sources of fresh water on a submarine include evaporators (devices that distill seawater), RO/DI systems (devices that create fresh water from seawater through reverse osmosis filtering), and freshwater tanks.
Evaporators typically produce an amount of fresh water that is enough for basic daily needs, such as drinking and cooking. On smaller submarines, evaporators are usually the primary source of fresh water, usually providing 10-15 gallons of water per day.
On larger submarines, however, evaporators can provide as much as 50-100 gallons of water per day, depending on the size of the submarine and the number of crew members on board.
RO/DI systems are designed to produce larger amounts of fresh water for longer voyages. RO/DI systems consist of multiple filtration stages, and the quality of the water produced is significantly higher than that of evaporator water.
Most submarine RO/DI systems are capable of producing up to 50-100 gallons of water per day.
Finally, some submarines also contain freshwater tanks, which are used to store and carry larger amounts of fresh water. Depending on the size of the submarine, these tanks can hold up to 1000 gallons of fresh water.
Such tanks greatly increase a submarine’s water storage capacity and enable crew members to have access to fresh water even when the other sources are depleted.
How do they keep air fresh on a submarine?
Keeping air fresh on a submarine is achieved by an air purification system. This system involves exchanging the air with fresh air from outside the vessel. The air is taken in through a high-flow air duct, which is then compressed, filtered and chilled before it is used to replace the air inside the submarine.
The air is then passed through a series of activated carbon filters, which absorb particles, odor and various other contaminants. An exhaust system then removes the contaminated air, pushing it to the surface of the sea.
The air purification system is also supplemented by various different components such as HEPA filters, pre-filters, and ozone generators to further purify the air and remove any remaining contaminants.
Finally, fans and air conditioners can be used to help control the air temperature and humidity level in the boat, creating a pleasant and healthy atmosphere for the crewmembers.
Can submarines replenish at sea?
Yes, submarines can replenish at sea. This process is known as underway replenishment, or UNREP for short. This involves the transfer of supplies and goods between two vessels while underway and at sea, with both vessels typically maintaining speed and maneuvering capabilities throughout.
Submarines often undergo a specialized form of UNREP known as “vertical replenishment”, where they come to the surface and transfer supplies with the assistance of a supply ship. Typically, this involves hoists and cargo nets that can move goods between the ships, as well as fuel that can be transferred via hoses.